Thoughts on Rewrites (Estimation)

Estimating rewrites is hard, and frequently developers got a tendency to underestimate such a task – as, in their mind, they know exactly how the system should work, as they already built it once. This holds only if the rewrite is 1-to-1 rewrite – meaning you are constructing a similar solution from both an architectural, deployment and functional perspective. But if that is the case, why then even bother rewriting?

Moving from an on-premise single solution to a super-scalable cloud based solution requires a complete new architecture and equally important, new deployment scenarios. The latter needs to factor in continuous deployment such that it will be possible to deploy functional updates at a quicker pace than that for on-premise solutions, as well as taking into consideration that updates shouldn’t break customer specific configuration or functionality.

These elements, along with others, spills into the architecture – that needs to be more loosely coupled, utilizing a decoupled messaging strategic allowing to deploy functional instance clusters – by using a service oriented approach, like MSA – Micro Service Architecture, and utilizing patterns like, say, CQRS. For all applications there will always be a certain requirement for customer specific functionality or configuration, which in a super scalable solution shouldn’t be accomplished by code changes, but by providing facilities in the underlying platform for extending the solution by means of metadata, configuration, rules engines or built-in scripting capabilities. For the latter, it is imperative that such a construct can be isolated within its own cluster to avoid scripts to impact the base system.

Another element of rewriting is the functional capabilities of the solution going forward. When faced with the opportunity/challenge of a rewrite – it is equally important to reconsider/rethink the functionality both at the micro-level (features) and at the macro-level (solution). It is an opportunity to solve previously shortcomings as well as focus on new capabilities that may not even exist in current offering.

The above leads to the rule of rewrites: DON’T. If required, rethink and build new, with a sharp focus on the value creation a new solution would bring to the customer.

Focusing on constructing a flexible architecture and internal processes allowing for continuously deployment initially, will pave the way for the ability to provide functionality to customers earlier in the development phase, than can be accomplished in an on-premise model, as you control the update cycles – and are not at the mercy of the customer’s ability or willingness to deploy updates. Moreover, it is crucial to align platform and functional development activities such that visible progress can be made available to the stakeholders, infusing confidence that the project is on track. With regards to the latter, then having tangible deliverables throughout the development phase will increase the success of the project significantly, not only because stakeholders tends to get nervous without visible progress, but equally important you will be able to receive customer feedback on a continuously basis, allowing you to either adjust or enhance features quickly and redeploy for feasibility testing.

The net is, that a transition from a traditional on-premise solution to a cloud based solution – in most cases – will take equal time as it took to develop the solution you are trying to cloud enable. The question then becomes, how to calculate the original effort. It is not that straight forward to calculate the total effort in man month invested in building a solution over a multi-year time frame, but it is a good mental exercise trying to do so – as it will give you a better idea of the total scope. In most cases people get surprised about how long it actually took to build a solution.

The next element of the top-level estimation process is somewhat controversially, as it builds on research into programmer productivity by Boehm conducted in 1995. Boehm found that a programmer in a medium complex system, effectively, produces 900 lines of code per month (LOC/pm). Note that this number is an average over the lifetime of a system. Initially the number is higher; however, as the complexity of the system increases the LOC/pm decreases. The LOC/pm can be used as a sanity check against the total estimated time from above.

The third element of the top-level estimation is to create a team estimate, where the development team themselves gives a high-level estimate.

Having these numbers will allow you to get a rough idea on the total effort required, and some numbers on which you can base your reasoning when presenting the effort and investment required to stakeholders.


To illustrate I will use an examples from two previous projects.

Case 1

The team had estimated a total effort of 324 man month. The estimated historical effort came to 900 man month. The LOC/pm gave 920 man month. In this particularly case the actual time ended up being 870 man month. Here the historical and LOC/pm matched very well, but the team estimate was 37% of the actual.

Case 2

In another project the team estimate was 180 man month. Estimated historical effort came to 800 man month. LOC/pm gave 1300. Here the actual time was 1080 man month. In this situation the team estimate was 16% of the actual.

In both of the above cases, the hardest part was not to convince stakeholders about the effort required, but to get the development teams to accept the initial estimation based on a combination of historical effort and LOC/pm. Personally I find that intriguing as it illustrates that developers are inherently optimistic when it comes to estimation. Not only at the micro-level – implementing specific features – but also at the macro-level – top-level solution estimation.